For a comfortable use of the water supply network, the pressure of the water flow is required in accordance with the standards. These indicators affect the performance and serviceability of the pumping device and sanitary devices. If you know what water pressure should be in an autonomous water supply system in a private house, the values can really be adjusted.
Optimal values for a private house
The pressure in the water supply line is measured in bars and in atmospheres. The difference in both values is small - up to hundredths of a unit. With a pressure of one atmosphere, the water flow enters a height of up to 10 m.
According to SNiP 2.0401-85, standards for cold water vary from 0.3 to 6 bar, for hot water - from 0.3 to 4.5.
In centralized lines, the pressure indicator is usually 4–4.5 bar. This value is enough to serve high-rise buildings. Residents of private houses have to carry out calculations individually. If an autonomous water supply is installed, it is possible to increase the pressure indicators in the water supply system more than those approved in the regulatory documentation. They vary in the range of 2.5–7.5 bar, and sometimes rise to 10 bar.
The standard criteria for normal operation of the pressure pump piping are between 1.4 and 2.8 bar, which is consistent with the factory set pressure switch values.
Determination of the required water pressure for the normal operation of an autonomous water supply system is carried out taking into account the plumbing fixtures used:
- for a jacuzzi, a head of four bars is required;
- for baths, showers, fire extinguishing devices - one and a half bars;
- for a washing machine - two bars;
- for watering works - at five bar.
The optimal value of the working pressure for a private house is at around four bars. This pressure is enough for the normal operation of all plumbing fixtures. Most of the fittings, shut-off and control valves can withstand it without breakage.
If the pressure is too high, especially sensitive devices will break or malfunction. For this reason, it should not increase beyond the 6.5 bar mark.
The pressure in gushing artesian wells reaches 10 bar. Only welded joints can withstand such a pressure, while most of the fittings, shut-off and control valves fail under its influence, which is why leaks appear at the places of their installation.
How is blood pressure measured?
A pressure gauge is used to measure in the water supply system. It is installed next to the water meter at the point where the water pipe enters the building. Heating boilers are also equipped with a built-in device. The pressure gauge allows you to independently measure the actual values and compare them with those that correspond to technological standards and GOSTs.
It is required to monitor the performance of this device regularly. Indeed, at low values, the water jet at water consumers will be extremely weak.
Exceeding the standards poses a danger to plumbing and household appliances. The water supply pressure gauge is equipped with a measuring scale with a maximum of seven atmospheres: when the pressure rises above this indicator, major malfunctions are formed in the network.At the joints of the pipe sections, leaks occur, the sensitive elements break.
Reasons for promotion and demotion
Most often, low pressure occurs due to wear and tear of water pipes - if they are rusted or clogged with limescale. The latter happens not only over time, but also because of too hard water. In such a situation, the pipeline needs to be replaced; there is no other solution to the problem of reduced pressure.
For other reasons that there is no normal pressure in the water supply system in a private house, include:
- Weak pressure plant. In non-centralized highways, water must be lifted from the aquifer and brought to all water consumers located at different distances from the pumping device and located at different heights.
- Low well production rate. While the mine is filled with water, the pressure in the water supply system will not drop, but as the source becomes empty, the pressure will decrease, and then the liquid will stop flowing into the pipeline.
- Opening all consumers at the same time. This becomes the reason for a decrease in the pressure in the line. Therefore, when performing design work, the total number of water consumers that can be opened immediately is taken into account.
As for the excessively high pressure, it arises both due to improperly selected pressure equipment - too powerful, and due to the formation of air locks in the water supply pipeline.
Pressure regulation methods
Adjusting the pressure switch helps to reduce the pressure. A decrease of less than 1.5 atmospheres is not allowed, the optimal value is 3-4 bar. Ideally, it is worth installing an automatic system that will control the operation of the equipment without human intervention.
Also, safety valves are used to reduce the pressure. If this value is exceeded, the compensator releases excess water into the sewer system.
You can increase the pressure by setting:
- booster pumping device;
- a hydroaccumulator with a membrane;
- storage capacity.
It is also possible to replace the installed pumping equipment with a more powerful one.
It is rational to include a booster in the wiring for a forced increase in pressure when there is a sufficient volume of liquid in the source, but it comes to remote or located at a height of consumption points with a large loss of head. For example, if the building has more than one floor. Management is possible both manually and automatically. The second option has a significant plus - the control of starting and stopping the pump, when necessary, is carried out by the automation independently.
If the flow rate is insufficient, the use of a booster pump will only aggravate the problem.
In such a situation, only the installation of a membrane accumulator will help. A rubber diaphragm divides the tank into two compartments - air and water. The space between the diaphragm surface and the body of the hydraulic accumulator is filled with high pressure air. Due to this, the water flow under the required pressure is supplied to each consumer. Such a scheme makes it possible to exclude pressure drops and hydraulic shocks, to ensure the uninterrupted operation of all elements of the line.
Another method is to use a large storage tank. If you install it in the highest place of the house, it will be filled through the main pump, and flow to the user by gravity. But to achieve a decent pressure in such a situation is unlikely to succeed. It is better to purchase an additional pump for pumping liquid from the reservoir. Then the tank can be placed anywhere, even in the basement.
Before choosing a method to increase the pressure in the water supply network, it is worth calling a specialist. He will check the condition of the filter element, shut-off valves, and will also carry out the correct pressure measurements.