Initially, the houses of the Khrushchev projects were conceived as temporary, to solve the housing problem. However, to this day, they occupy a fair share of the fund. The main problem of living is the scheme of the heating system of the Khrushchev and its arrangement. Taking into account natural wear and tear, it often does not fully fulfill its functions.
- Centralized heating scheme for Khrushchev
- Auxiliary heating in Khrushchev
- Insulation of the outer walls of the Khrushchev
- Warm floor in Khrushchev
- Heaters for apartments
- Autonomous heating systems in Khrushchev: the choice of the boiler and the correct piping
- Heating boiler for Khrushchev
- Heating pipes and radiators
- Project and heating schemes for Khrushchev
- Tips to Minimize Heating Costs
Centralized heating scheme for Khrushchev
The houses of this project are characterized by a one-pipe scheme, when the distribution of the coolant starts from the upper (5th) floor and ends with the entrance of cooled water into the basement. Such heating systems in Khrushchev have one significant drawback - the uneven distribution of heat throughout the apartments.
This is due to the alternate passage of the coolant through the floors, i.e. the greatest degree of its heating will be at the 5th, 4th, and at the 1st, the amount of heat is not enough to heat the room. In addition, the heating scheme of the five-story Khrushchev has the following disadvantages:
- Poor condition of heating elements. Lime build-up on the inner surface of pipes and batteries leads to a decrease in diameter, and as a result, a decrease in heat transfer;
- Lack of temperature control system on batteries. It is impossible to reduce the flow of coolant with devices, as this will affect the hydraulic pressure in the entire system. Output - installation of a bypass for each radiator.
To solve these problems, it is necessary to carry out modernization - to install modern radiators and pipes. Metallic heating devices and polymer pipelines have proven themselves best. They have increased heat transfer rates, which contributes to the fastest heating of rooms. However, in order to create a truly efficient heating system in Khrushchev, it is necessary to replace all floors. If old pipes and radiators are left on the upper ones, then the rate of passage of water in the system will be unsatisfactory as before.
The implementation of such modernization can be carried out not only by the forces of residents, but also by attracting the resources of the housing office. This organization is obliged to carry out a planned replacement of pipelines. They also know how the heating system is arranged in Khrushchev - the layout and location of pipelines for a particular house.
Auxiliary heating in Khrushchev
What to do if, even after performing the improvement and replacing the elements, the temperature in the apartment is far from ideal. The best option is autonomous heating in Khrushchev. However, this is not always possible - the installation of a gas boiler is not allowed due to low pressure in the line or due to inappropriate chimney ducts.
Then they begin to develop alternative ways to increase the temperature in the room. The negative point is that the heating scheme of the five-story Khrushchev house does not provide for the connection of additional radiators. This can lead to a decrease in pressure in the pipes and significant heat loss for residents below. In order to avoid unpleasant moments, you can perform a number of actions that contribute to energy saving in the apartment.
Insulation of the outer walls of the Khrushchev
It is recommended to install a thermal insulation layer on the outer walls. It will help to reduce heat losses and will not affect the current state of the heating system in Khrushchev. It is also necessary to replace old wooden windows with new ones made of PVC or laminated veneer lumber. Particular attention should be paid to the thickness of the glass units. For effective thermal insulation, this parameter should be at least 28 mm.
Warm floor in Khrushchev
This is one of the best mechanisms for raising the temperature in an apartment. It can be installed not only in the bathroom and kitchen, but also in living quarters. It is best to choose infrared floor heating models, since their installation requires a minimum increase in the thickness of the floor covering. The heating circuit of the Khrushchev is not designed for connecting a water-heated floor. Its installation can lead to malfunctioning of the entire heating circuit of the house.
Heaters for apartments
They can solve the problem with the speed of heating the air in the apartment and do not affect the operation of the main heating system of the apartments in Khrushchev. Along with traditional oil and converter-type electric heaters, infrared models have become very popular. They raise the temperature not of the air, but of objects, heating their surface. However, the disadvantage of such devices is the increase in financial costs for electricity.
Before connecting the heaters, it is necessary to check the wiring. Often the cross-section of the wire is not designed for heavy loads. The heating scheme for a five-story Khrushchev is designed only for a water heat carrier.
Therefore, it is first recommended to replace it, only then install powerful electrical appliances.
Autonomous heating systems in Khrushchev: the choice of the boiler and the correct piping
Contrary to popular belief, you can make individual heating in the Khrushchev. For this, it is necessary to select a boiler that meets the standards and provide the management company with the developed project. Previously, it gives technical conditions, on the basis of which an autonomous heating system in Khrushchev is compiled.
What should you pay attention to when solving this problem? Consider the main components of autonomous heating in Khrushchev - a boiler, a piping system and radiators.
Heating boiler for Khrushchev
The average area of a two-room apartment in Khrushchev does not exceed 60 m2. Therefore, the optimal power of a gas boiler should be 7-8 kW. The next condition is the type of burner - it must be closed. Since the arrangement of the heating system in Khrushchev according to the scheme does not provide for the installation of the boiler, normal air exchange should be ensured for its operation. This is necessary to take air from the street using a coaxial chimney. In some cases, it is possible to install systems for removing carbon monoxide gases into the air ducts of the building. But before that it is necessary to obtain the approval of the fire department. Often this is exactly what is an obstacle to the installation of individual heating in Khrushchev.
Heating pipes and radiators
For laying the line, it is best to use reinforced polypropylene pipes. They are characterized by simple installation and affordable cost. Their advantages include the possibility of hidden installation. It can only be carried out in the floor, since the chasing of load-bearing walls is prohibited. The heating system in Khrushchev is designed in such a way that the place where the radiators are installed is most often under the windows. When designing an autonomous heating system, it is possible to provide for the installation of additional batteries. Most often they are installed in the bathroom.
Project and heating schemes for Khrushchev
When developing a heating scheme for a Khrushchev, it is necessary to provide for all the nuances. In particular, the provision of hot water supply. Therefore, it is best to purchase double-circuit heating boilers.
The requirements for the scheme are no different from the standard ones.
- Compliance of temperature and pressure with the operational characteristics of pipes, radiators;
- Connection to the water supply system to make up the heating;
- Installation of an expansion tank and a circular pump.
In this case, installation of a water-heated floor is possible. For this, the Khrushchev heating scheme provides for the installation of a collector. It will distribute the coolant through the underfloor heating pipelines, the built-in system for mixing hot and cold water flows (two-way valve) will automatically adjust the temperature.
To minimize the increase in floor thickness, it is recommended to use a decorative coating designed for installation directly on hot water pipes. The packaging must be marked accordingly.
Tips to Minimize Heating Costs
In addition to the modernization of the autonomous heating installation, a number of actions can be performed, the result of which will lead to a decrease in the current operating costs and payment for utility services. Given the specific layout of the heating system in Khrushchev, the installation of heat meters in an apartment is impractical. This is due to the absence of a central riser, i.e. even for a one-room apartment, you will have to install at least three meters - in the bathroom, in the kitchen and in the living room.
The total cost of installing one device can range from 25 to 30 thousand rubles. The way out of this situation is to install a common house meter. It will take into account the amount of heat consumed for the entire building. Fortunately, the centralized scheme inherent in all types of heating Khrushchev allows you to do this. As an additional function, a mode for adjusting the heating agent supply depending on the outside temperature can be provided.
For the central heating circuit of a five-story Khrushchev, a balancing riser can be installed. It will perform the functions of evenly distributing the coolant over all floors of the house. However, which project is carried out only by agreement with the housing office, since it belongs to the category of changing the principle of hot water supply.
If old steel pipes and radiators are installed in the house, it is recommended to carry out periodic chemical and mechanical cleaning. Before that, the socialists must carefully study the heating scheme of the five-story Khrushchev house in order to draw up a work plan. It is recommended to clean the apartments on the upper floors. As a result, the permeability of the coolant through pipes and radiators will improve.
Some schemes of heating systems in Khrushchev and their design provided for hidden installation of radiators. This installation method is effective only if the outer walls are insulated.
As an alternative type of heating, you can see the video on installing electric heating elements in radiators.